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India Wins Freedom
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The Last War of Independence
Quit India
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A Pinch of Salt!
Saga of Indian Revolutionaries
Bardoli
Gandhiji Withdraws from Political Activities
The Himalayan Blunder
A People Reject Their Rulers
Jallianwala — The Aftermath
Massacre at Jallianwala Bagh
The Gentle Satyagrahi
Gandhi in Champaran
Carrot and Stick
Revolutionaries Outside India
Heroes and Martyrs
Gandhi in South Africa
From Swadeshi to Swaraj
Swadeshi Enterprise
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The Great Divide
Partition of Bengal
The Battle is Taken to the Legislature!
The Monk Who Shook The Nation
Father of Indian Unrest
An Old Man's Dream
Women : Crossing the Threshold
The Battle Lines are Drawn
The Battle For A Free Press
Pressing On !
Europeans Take To The Street!
The British Raj in Black and White
Mamool Raj
The One-Man Army
Hunger Deaths
The Delhi Durbar
Return to Swadeshi
Barbarous Britannia
‘Rani Ka Hookum’
Perishing in Peace
The Blue Mutiny
English Education
The Trial of the Last Emperor
Roll of Honour
The Empire Strikes Back
British Authority Collapses
Sepoys on the Move
Tribal Uprisings
The Empire Builders
For God and Country

Mamool Raj

In South India, under the Ryotwari Settlement introduced by the British the ryot or the cultivator was deemed the owner of the land against payment of land rent. The land revenue was collected by revenue officials directly from the ryots and there were no middlemen such as zamindars. The land revenue was not fixed. It increased or decreased according to the yield and the maximum limit varied from time to time. Towards the end of the 19th century the maximum limit of the land revenue was fixed at one-third of the field produce. According to Romesh Dutt, after paying for the cost of cultivation, what was left was taken away as land revenue leaving practically nothing for the ryots.
Mr. Boudillon, in his book, "Description of the Madras Ryot in 1853" wrote : "A Ryot of this class of course lives from hand to mouth; he rarely sees money except that obtained from the Chetty (money-lender) to pay his kist (instalment of Government Revenue) the exchanges in the villages are very few, and they are usually conducted by barter. His ploughing cattle are wretched animals not worth more than 3 1/2 to 6 rupees each (17 to 12 shillings), and those perhaps not his own because not paid for, his rude and feeble plough costs, when new, not more than 2 to 3 shillings; and all the rest of his few agricultural implements are equally primitive and inefficient. His dwelling is a hut of mud walls and thatched roofs and destitute of anything that can be called furniture. His food and that of his family is partly their porridge made of the meal of grain boiled in water, and partly boiled rice with a little condiment; and generally the only vessels for cooking and eating from are of the coarsest earthenware, much inferior in grain to a good tile or brick in England, and unglazed. Brass vessels, though not wholly unknown among this class, are rare…
"…The scale of the Ryots descends to those who possess a small patch of land, cultivated sometimes by the aid of borrowed cattle, but whose chief subsistence is derived from cooly-labour, either cutting firewood and carrying it for sale to a neighbouring town, or in field labour."

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