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Under One Flag
The Light Has Gone Out
India Wins Freedom
Apostle of Peace
The Last War of Independence
Quit India
Leave India to God… or to Anarchy
Gandhi and Ambedkar
A Pinch of Salt!
Saga of Indian Revolutionaries
Bardoli
Gandhiji Withdraws from Political Activities
The Himalayan Blunder
A People Reject Their Rulers
Jallianwala — The Aftermath
Massacre at Jallianwala Bagh
The Gentle Satyagrahi
Gandhi in Champaran
Carrot and Stick
Revolutionaries Outside India
Heroes and Martyrs
Gandhi in South Africa
From Swadeshi to Swaraj
Swadeshi Enterprise
The New Spirit of India
The Great Divide
Partition of Bengal
The Battle is Taken to the Legislature!
The Monk Who Shook The Nation
Father of Indian Unrest
An Old Man's Dream
Women : Crossing the Threshold
The Battle Lines are Drawn
The Battle For A Free Press
Pressing On !
Europeans Take To The Street!
The British Raj in Black and White
Mamool Raj
The One-Man Army
Hunger Deaths
The Delhi Durbar
Return to Swadeshi
Barbarous Britannia
‘Rani Ka Hookum’
Perishing in Peace
The Blue Mutiny
English Education
The Trial of the Last Emperor
Roll of Honour
The Empire Strikes Back
British Authority Collapses
Sepoys on the Move
Tribal Uprisings
The Empire Builders
For God and Country

India Wins Freedom

Lord Mountbatten assumed office as the last viceroy of India on 24 March 1947. He had a one-point programme: to pull his country out of India before June 1948.
It did not take him long to realise that there was no meeting ground between the Muslim League and the Congress. The Muslim League was determined to have a sovereign state of Pakistan; the Congress was for one united country.
Though the Muslim League had been persuaded to join the interim government headed by Jawaharlal Nehru, the League ministers would not co-operate and obstructed the smooth functioning of the government. They were out to demonstrate that such a government would not work.
The League also refused to participate in the deliberations of the Constituent Assembly formed to frame the constitution for the country.
While the leaders were wrestling with the knotty problem of transfer of power, misguided Hindus and Muslims in various parts of the country had drawn the battle lines and were at each other's throats.
With the killings, burning and looting continuing unabated in the country, Mountbatten placed two options before Mohammad Ali Jinnah, president of the Muslim League — stay within an India in which the Muslim majority provinces would be grouped together and given autonomy so that they would be virtually self-governing with the centre holding only some portfolios like Defence and Foreign Affairs or form a separate, sovereign, nation outside India made up of Muslim majority provinces minus the areas in these provinces in which Hindus and Sikhs were in greater numbers. These parts would remain with India.
Jinnah opted for a sovereign state outside India though he was not satisfied with the boundaries designated for it, complaining that he had been given 'a moth-eaten Pakistan'.
Neither Gandhiji nor the Congress party was in favour of partition. But as Acharya Kripalani, the then president of the Congress pointed out, no way had been found to defuse the tension in the Hindu-Muslim relationship and the Congress leadership came round to the view that partition was unavoidable.
In the country, in general, there were those who opposed partition — and these included both Hindus and a section of the Muslims — because they refused to accept that the two communities could not live together in peace and harmony in the same country. They believed that Muslims who wished to separate could be persuaded to give up their demand for a separate state through love and understanding.

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