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Under One Flag
The Light Has Gone Out
India Wins Freedom
Apostle of Peace
The Last War of Independence
Quit India
Leave India to God… or to Anarchy
Gandhi and Ambedkar
A Pinch of Salt!
Saga of Indian Revolutionaries
Bardoli
Gandhiji Withdraws from Political Activities
The Himalayan Blunder
A People Reject Their Rulers
Jallianwala — The Aftermath
Massacre at Jallianwala Bagh
The Gentle Satyagrahi
Gandhi in Champaran
Carrot and Stick
Revolutionaries Outside India
Heroes and Martyrs
Gandhi in South Africa
From Swadeshi to Swaraj
Swadeshi Enterprise
The New Spirit of India
The Great Divide
Partition of Bengal
The Battle is Taken to the Legislature!
The Monk Who Shook The Nation
Father of Indian Unrest
An Old Man's Dream
Women : Crossing the Threshold
The Battle Lines are Drawn
The Battle For A Free Press
Pressing On !
Europeans Take To The Street!
The British Raj in Black and White
Mamool Raj
The One-Man Army
Hunger Deaths
The Delhi Durbar
Return to Swadeshi
Barbarous Britannia
‘Rani Ka Hookum’
Perishing in Peace
The Blue Mutiny
English Education
The Trial of the Last Emperor
Roll of Honour
The Empire Strikes Back
British Authority Collapses
Sepoys on the Move
Tribal Uprisings
The Empire Builders
For God and Country

Heroes and Martyrs

Around 1908 the Swadeshi movement had run out of steam.
"When I went to jail the whole country was alive with the cry of 'Bande Mataram', alive with the hope of a nation, the hope of millions of men who had newly risen out of degradation," wrote Aurobindo in 1909. "When I came out of jail I listened for that cry but there was instead a silence. A hush had fallen on the country."
This was not surprising because a mass movement cannot continue indefinitely at its original tempo in the face of repression. However, the movement had drawn a large number of youth in its vortex and many of them continued to be fired by dreams of freedom. Some expressed their anger against the British through acts of violence.
When mass support for the Swadeshi movement began to wane, such acts both by individuals and groups, increased in number in Bengal, Punjab, Maharashtra and further south.
Revolutionary activities in the country began in the country in the last quarter of the nineteenth century with Vasudev Balwant Phadke who dreamt of raising an army to drive out the British. Twenty years after Phadke's capture and deportation, the Chaphekar brothers, Damodar and Balakrishna shot dead Rand, the Plague Commissioner of Pune on 22nd June 1897. Their younger brother Vasudev aged 16 and his friend, Mahadev Ranade killed the police informers. All four young men were subsequently caught and hanged.
The decline of the Swadeshi movement threw up several such revolutionaries. Among them were Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, Lala Hardayal, Ajit Singh, Wanchi Iyer (who shot dead a district magistrate in Tamil Nadu in 1908), Rashbehari Bose (who threw a bomb at Viceroy Hardinge in 1912) and Jatin Mukherjee, popularly known as Bagha Jatin who had organised an international chain of Indian revolutionaries, known as the Indo-German Plan, and died in a gun battle with police at Balasore in Orissa.

Bagha Jatin or Jatindranath Mukherjee

1903, at Darjeeling, as a Government servant 1910, at Alipore Central Jail, under-trial prisoner
Pictures provided by Shri Bagha Jatin's grandson and historian of that period Dr Prithwindra Mukherjee,
Researcher (Paris).

1915, after the battle of Balasore on 9 September.

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