The Communists came to power in Mongolia in 1921 and ruled for 75 years until voted out in last June's elections.
Forced industrialisation made them change their way of life, but now free to think and choose for themselves, Mongolians are taking a new look at their past. There is a revival of interest in Buddhism which the Communists had tried to suppress and a renewed pride in the great Mongol warrior, Genghis Khan.
When Genghis Khan was a boy, the Mongol nation consisted of a number of loosely affiliated nomadic tribes. In time, Timujin, as the warrior was then known, united the tribes and forged them into a mighty fighting force. He then set out to conquer the world. By the time of his death in 1227, the Mongol empire stretched from the Pacific to eastern Europe. It was the largest land empire in history.
Today Mongolia lies forgotten, sealed off from the rest of the world by its giant neighbours, Russia and China.
Most Mongolians now live on livestock farms or in towns and cities. But a few still live a nomadic existence like their forefathers. They live in tents called gers and move from place to place with their animals.
The capital of the country is Ulan Bator which means 'Red Hero'.