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Uttar Pradesh

Uttar Pradesh, or UP is India’s most populous state. Areawise, it comes fourth.
Area: 2,38,566 sq km
Population : 16,60,52,859.
Language : Hindi and Urdu
Capital : Lucknow

Literacy rate : Female literacy is low: only 26 per cent can read and write among males

Physiography :
The state has three distinct physical divisions: the Himalayas in the north; the Gangetic plain in the middle and the Vindhya hills and plateau in the south.
The Himalayan region is characterised by snow-covered peaks, deep canyons and roaring streams that give rise to some of India’s major rivers including the Ganga, Yamuna, Ghagra and the Gomti. The mountains rise to more than 7000 m in places and include several prominent peaks such as Nanda Devi, Kismet and Badrinath. South of the Himalayas are the Siwaliks within which are located many of north India’s popular hill resorts, including Mussoorie, Nainital and Ranikhet.
Along the southern fringes of the Siwaliks is the Terai, a swampy lowland belt reputed to be one of the most unhealthy regions of India. Formerly it was covered with thick forests and tall grasses but now deforestation has denuded the land. The Gangetic plain covers about three-fourths of UP. The Ganga which flows through a greater part of the state, is the physical and spiritual life source of the region. The southern boundary of the state encompasses the plateau area of the Vindhyas.
Often referred to as the ‘cow belt’ or ‘Hindi belt’, Uttar Pradesh has been the most dominant state in Indian politics and culture since independence, producing eight of India’s prime ministers.

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