1485 In the War of the Roses, King Richard III was defeated and killed by Henry Tudor (who ruled as Henry VII and began the Tudor rule in England.)
1639 Madras (now Chennai), was founded by the British East India Company who built Fort St George on the land bought from local Nayak rulers.
1642 A civil war broke out in England between King Charles I and the English Parliament.
1864 The Geneva Convention was adopted and signed by twelve nations. The agreement, advocated by Swiss humanitarian Jean Henry Dunant, called for non-partisan care to the sick and wounded in times of war.
1908 One of the world's greatest photographers, Henri Cartier-Bresson was born.
1922 Irish revolutionary and Sinn Fein politician, Michael Collins was killed in an ambush near Macroom, Ireland.
1944 Soviet troops occupied Romania during the Second World War and remained until 1958.
1949 The sparsely populated Queen Charlotte Islands was rocked by the second greatest earthquake in Canada’s history. However, nobody was killed.
2005 In tennis, Maria Sharapova briefly became the first Russian woman to reach world number one position in the WTA rankings.
2008 Team Jamaica consisting of Nesta Carter, Michael Frater, Usain Bolt and Asafa Powell won the gold medal and set a new world record in the men's 4x100m relay at the Beijing Olympics.
2008 Vijender Kumar became the first Indian boxer to win an Olympic medal when he won the bronze medal in the middleweight category at the Beijing Olympics.