When plants are watered, a great deal of the water is wasted as it falls between plants and they cannot reach it.
Where water is scarce, farmers sometimes use the drip irrigation method. The water is slowly released to the plants through long tubes that run across the field, just above the ground. The tubes have small openings called emitters all along their length at points corresponding to the location of the plants. The water drips from the emitters and falls only on the stem or root area of each plant. This avoids wastage of water.
Drip irrigation technology was developed in Israel where desert lands were transformed into orchards with this method.
Drip irrigation is now practised in many parts of India wherever water is scarce.